Because 76-85% of whey permeate and 78-88% of milk permeate is lactose, the lactose content dictates the functionality of milk permeate. Food formulators desiring the Maillard browning reaction in a bakery formula can achieve this through using either milk permeate or lactose. Milk permeate also contains mineral salts such as calcium phosphate, magnesium, sodium and potassium, which appear to contribute to a saltier flavor. However, these minerals can interfere with gum stabilizing systems and emulsification systems. Therefore, care must be taken to prevent the minerals from interfering with product stability by sequestering the mineral to decrease their reactivity with other ingredients. The primary difference between MPP and lactose is that lactose does not contain milk minerals while MPP contains approximately 8% milk mineral content.

Idaho Milk Products Milk Permeate Powder (MPP) is typically 85 percent lactose (minimum 80 percent), 3 percent protein, 9 percent ash, and free moisture levels at 1.5 percent or lower.  IdaPro MPP was designed to be the highest quality milk permeate available on the market. IdaPro MPP has a sweet, bland, milky flavor and aroma. It is Grade A and manufactured for the food market.