What exactly causes Maillard browning?

Maillard browning is a chemical reaction that usually occurs between amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and those carbohydrates known as reducing sugars – although the reaction has been known to occur between reducing sugars and whole proteins. In a Maillard reaction, the reactive carbonyl group of a reducing sugar molecule reacts with the…

What is a Maillard Reaction?

The Maillard Reaction, or sometimes it is more commonly known as the Maillard Browning Reaction, is a chemical reaction between an amino acid (or a protein) and a reducing sugar. The two chemicals form a new compound that is significantly altered from a simple amino acid and a simple sugar. The new compound may exhibit…

Are different heat treatments used in manufacturing MPCs?

Yes. Different MPC manufacturers follow their own, unique processing methods. Just as milk powders can vary in heat exposure and heat damage from one manufacturer to another, MPCs can vary from one manufacturer to another. Milk powders are graded according to their heat exposure/damage by assaying the powders for undenatured whey protein nitrogen. The powders…

When you talk low heat, to what temperature is the product heated?

The U.S. Government requires that all milk used for further processing be pasteurized (unless one has a raw milk license). Therefore, prior to processing the skim milk into MPI/MPS, we pasteurize the milk using high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions (72°C for 22 seconds). Everyone around the world does this. The skim milk is immediately cooled back…

Does heat exposure affect the properties of an MPC?

Yes, depending on the amount of heat exposure, heat can cause properties of an MPC to change. That does not mean that heat will always cause changes in MPC properties. At standard food processing temperatures and hold times (example: 162°F for pasteurizing), MPC will undergo negligible to slightly perceptible changes. At higher temperatures above 180°F…

Is there a way to avoid the problems of seasonal variation?

Yes, through proper herd management. It is possible to maintain a consistent balance in a dairy herd of the numbers of cows at all stages of the lactation cycle by practicing what is known as “herd rotation” – at any time during the 12 month calendar year, the same number of cows are at all…

What is meant by “Seasonal Variation” of milk?

To understand seasonal variation of cow’s milk, one first needs to understand that all cow’s milk is produced by a cow as part of the mammalian lactation cycle for feeing of infant mammals. Once a cow begins the pregnancy cycle, the lactation cycle begins. When a calf is birthed (as with all mammal births) the…

Why does milk freshness matter?

Even at refrigerated temperatures, as milk sits around, reactions occur. Calcium and phosphorous will react with each other to form insoluble calcium phosphate salts and they will also react with the casein and whey proteins to decrease protein solubility. Fat in the milk will hydrolyze and oxidize, modifying the flavor characteristics of all of the…